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Typhoid
Infection
The infection is transmitted through food and water contaminated with human waste.

Vaccination
Vaccination is usually recommended to travellers staying more than 4 weeks in third world countries, or for short-term stays under primitive conditions.

There are two types of vaccine available:

Vaccine for injection
The vaccine contain purified surface antigen (so called vi-antigen) from Salmonella typhoid. One injection protects up to 3 years.
The vaccine can be used in children down to 2 years.

Vaccine in capsules
The vaccine contain live, attenuated Salmonella typhoid bacteria. The three capsules are swallowed 48 hours apart. The vac-cine protects at least one year, but longer if you have been exposed to Salmonella typhi. However, it is difficult to know that, especially if the vaccine is protective.
The vaccine can be used in children down to 5 years.

Symptoms
The symptoms are diarrhoea and high fever. The diarrhoea may not be that intensive and in rare cases constipation is seen. Some patients experience a faint rash.

Diagnosis
Salmonella can be cultured from faeces or, in cases with high fever, from the blood.

Treatment
Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics.

Prevention
Be careful with food and water and avoid food and drinks, which may be contaminated. Boiling will kill the bacteria and cooking or frying food also destroys the bacteria.
For prevention of diarrhoea and preserving food and water, see Diarrhoea.

Further information: W.H.O. Typhoid Fever

Edited 15 December 2008