By a journey to Rwanda on 6 months or longer recommend protection against the following infections:
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a serious throat infection, which infects from person-to-person through the air. The vaccination should be less than 10 years old otherwise a booster is needed. Read more about diphteria here.
Malaria There is considerable risk of malaria and prophylaxis is recommended. The choice is between Malarone, Doxycycline or Lariam. Protection against mosquito bites will reduce the risk further. The distribution of malaria can be seen at the map below. Read more about malaria here.
Tuberkulosis The vaccine against tuberculosis, BCG, is recommended to people stationed in high-risk areas for more than 6 months, who have not been previously vaccinated. The vaccine contains live bacteria which produces a small wound, as well as scar after healing. The whole process takes 4 to 8 weeks. Read more about tuberculosis here.
Yellow fever Yellow fever is a virus infection, which cause a serious hepatitis. The vaccine provides protection for 10 years after a single injection. Countries where yellow fever is present are entitled to request a valid certificate documenting a vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before entry. The certificate is a stamp in the WHO yellow book. Read more about yellow fever here.
Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) Infectious hepatitis infects through contaminated food and water. Vaccination consists of two injections about 12 months apart, which protects for up to 25 years. The first vaccination protects for 12 months. Read more about hepatitis A here. The hepatitis A vaccine can be combined with the vaccine against hepatitis B
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infects through blood, sexual activities and, in small children, through saliva. The vaccination consists of 2 vaccinations about 4 weeks apart and a third 6 months later. The protection is for at least 25 years perhaps life long. Read more about hepatitis B here. The hepatitis B vaccine can be combined with the vaccine against hepatitis A.
HIV in Africa 109 Danes were infected with HIV in Africa between 1991 and 99. Africa is the continent with most HIV infected people. Overall about 8% of the population is infected with infection rates reaching up to 80% in risk groups like prostitutes. Read more about HIV here.
Meningitis Meningitis due to meningococcus bacteria infect from person to person through the air. The vaccine protects against infection for 3 years after 1 vaccination. There are two vaccines: One protects only against type A and C. The other protects against A, C, W135 and Y and is used for travel to Saudi Arabia (especially Hajj) and West Africa.
Rabies The vaccination consists of 3 injections at day 0, 7 and 28 and must therefore start 4 weeks before departure. Vaccination protects for 5 years. If exposed to rabies, the "post-exposure" vaccinations are reduced from five to two if immunized before being bitten with 3 injections. Read more about rabies here.
Tetanus Tetanus is a complication to wounds contaminated by soil. If there has been a vaccination within the past 10 years it is not necessary to give a booster in case of wounds and accidents. Tetanus vaccinations are usually given in combination with diphtheria vaccine. If you are previously vaccinated, the vaccine can be given right up to departure.
Typhoid Typhoid is the most serious of the Salmonella infections. There are two types of vaccine: 1. Vaccine for injection, one vaccination protect up to 3 years. 2. A live vaccine in capsules, which is swallowed. Three capsules are taken 2 days apart and provide protection for a year. Read more about typhoid here. Read more about diarrhoea here.